Cholesterol Gallstone disease is one of the most prevalent and most costly digestive diseases.Although many gallstones are “silent,” approximately one third eventually cause symptoms and complications. On the basis of chemical composition and macroscopic appearance, gallstones are divided into three types: cholesterol(75%), pigment(24.5%), and rare stones(0.5%). Gallstones also are classified by their location into intrahepatic stones, gallbladder stones, and choledocholithiasis (bile duct stones).
Intrahepatic stones are predominantly brown pigment stones. Gallbladder gallstones are mainly cholesterol stones, with a small group of black pigment stones. Bile duct stones are composed mostly of mixed cholesterol stones.
Multiple risk factors for formation of Gallstones are identified. Female sex, Obesity , Diabetes, few drugs, rapid weight loss are among the most common risk factors. In patients with asymptomatic stones,the frequency of complications is low, and prophylactic cholecystectomy is not necessary. Cholecystectomy (Removal of Gallbladder) should be offered to patients only after biliary symptoms develop.